What is third printing?

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a method of creating a three dimensional object layer-by-layer using a computer created design. 3D printing is an additive process whereby layers of material are built up to create a 3D part.

What is Digital 3rd print?

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing process that creates a physical object from a digital design. The process works by laying down thin layers of material in the form of liquid or powdered plastic, metal or cement, and then fusing the layers together.

When was 3rd printing invented?

The first documented iterations of 3D printing can be traced back to the early 1980s in Japan. In 1981, Hideo Kodama was trying to find a way to develop a rapid prototyping system. He came up with a layer-by-layer approach for manufacturing, using a photosensitive resin that was polymerized by UV light.

Is a first printing a first edition?

A first edition is the first printing of a book. It’s true that a first edition may have one or more printings and that a second edition will normally be noted only if there are actual changes, usually major, in the text. But for a collector, a first printing is the only true first edition.

What does 1st print mean in comics?

All comics when they are initially released are considered to be first prints. Sometimes an issue will sell out quickly and the publisher will go back to the press and publish a second, third or even fourth printing of a popular comic book.

How can you tell if a book is rare?

  1. Check for Anything Unusual and Special.
  2. Look for Signatures.
  3. Figure Out if It’s a First Edition.
  4. Look for Limited Editions.
  5. Examine the Printing Date.
  6. Check for Anything You Personally Collect.

Why are second prints worth more?

Second Prints to Satisfy DemandFor popular comic books, these additional prints have value, sometimes even higher than the original. The third printing of Hulk #377, for example, has a much higher FMV (Fair Market Value) than the original edition, mainly because of its low numbers and unique colors.

How do you know if a book is valuable?

In determining the value of a book there are three basic elements: 1) rarity, 2) condition, and, 3) demand. Books with the most value normally have all three of these elements, and the loss of any will likely result in a loss of value. Age of the book is not always a key factor in value.

Is printing same as edition?

“Strictly speaking, an edition comprises all copies of a book printed at any time from one setting-up of type without substantial change.” A printing [also known as] “an impression comprises the whole number of copies of that edition printed at one time, without the type or plates being removed from the press.”

What does 2nd printing before publication mean?

Second printings are also sometimes referred to as a “second printing before publication.” When the first edition of a book has a few typos or other small errors (called “points of issue”), a “second state” of a first edition may be printed to correct these.

What is a first printing book?

A book can go through several print cycles, sometimes with edits that add in author notes or additional material, so the book in its original form – during its initial release (or first printing) to the public – is what is generally defined as a first edition by collectors and sellers.

How do you know if a comic is 2nd print?

  1. The information important to readers, regarding; issue number, printing type (regular or variant) and whether the issue is a first, second, third printing is all contained within the last 5 digits of the issues barcode.
  2. These 3 numbers show the issue number.

How do you know if a book is authentic?

  1. Blurry Text/Logos. Check the text and logos on the front and back covers.
  2. Off-Center Text. Text on the spine is nearly always centered in the middle of the spine.
  3. Copyright Mark.
  4. Uneven Glue in Spine.
  5. Images and Text Bleeding Through the Page.

What makes first edition books valuable?

First Books (Not First Editions) – (And many didn’t enjoy a second.) What makes a valuable first edition is the perfect confluence of rarity and demand – which is why, while there are exceptions, an author’s first book, typically printed for a small audience, is the one most likely to achieve impressive prices.

Are 2nd print comics worth anything?

On average, most 2nd print comics are not worth anything. However, in cases where the 2nd print contain first appearances of characters, they can be worth something. In some, 2nd print can be more expensive than 1st prints.

How many books are printed in a first edition?

For example: a publisher preparing a brand new book sets the type and prints 1000 copies–this is the first edition, first impression. The book is a commercial success and he decides to print additional copies a few months later.

How can you tell what edition a book is?

Look for the text that states the edition of the book – The copyright page is usually found on the back of the book’s title page. There may be other information on there, such as legal notices, copyright notices, publication information, printing history and ISBN information.


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